Adjuvant treatment for:
Adjuvant treatment for:
Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of Evening Primrose Oil (EPO), as a source of GLA, in cases of diabetic neuropathy, hypertension, breast tenderness, premenstrual syndrome, osteoporosis and dementia. Evening primrose has anti-inflammatory effects, corrects deficiency of the essential fatty acid omega-6, improves the synthesis of vasodilator eicosanoids, rectifies defects in neural blood flow and the velocity of neural conduction in diabetic patients. GLA is one of the essential fatty acids which the human body cannot synthesize and needs to be provided, like the vitamins, via nutrition and supplements. A share of the positive effects of this substance is due to an increase in production of prostaglandin E1 which possesses anti-inflammatory properties. In what follows, the results of some clinical trials are summarized.
During 17 years up to 1992 in Cardiff Mastalgia Clinic, 224 patients with cyclical and 90 patients with non-cyclical breast pain were administered different medications in various rounds of clinical trials. In patients who responded to treatment, danazol was the most efficient medicine (70%) and bromocriptine and evening primrose oil showed similar effects (about 45%). Also, patients who received evening primrose oil reported fewer adverse effects.
In parallel, random, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials in 7 centers in England and Finland, 111 patients with mild diabetic neuropathy received either GLA (480 mg per day) or placebo for one year, and were evaluated using standard tests. In the test group, considerable positive change was observed in 13 parameters out of the 16 parameters of interest to the study, which was indicative of positive efficacy on the progression of mild diabetic neuropathy. Gender, age, type of diabetes, age of commencement or duration of diabetes had no significant effect on the outcome. However, the treatment was more effective in those patients whose diabetes was relatively managed. The patients could follow the treatment for another 12 months and to all those who participated in this phase GLA (dose unknown) was administered; further progress was also observed in this phase.(8)
To 22 patients with diabetic distal polyneuropathy who participated in a placebo-controlled double-blind study, either 360 mg GLA or placebo capsules were administered for 6 months. Patients in the treatment group showed significant improvement in the symptoms of diabetic distal polyneuropathy.
In a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and active sinusitis received either 1.2 g GLA or placebo per day for 24 weeks. In comparison to the placebo group, in which the signs and symptoms of the disorders had not changed or had aggravated, treatment with GLA caused significant decrease in disease activity (p<0.05).
In a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 56 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis received either GLA (2.8 g per day) or placebo (sunflower oil) for 6 months. Afterwards, all patients were administered GLA for 6 months in a single-blind phase. Treatment with GLA caused significant reduction in signs and symptoms of disease activity. In comparison to 4 out of 19 patients in the placebo group, in most patients in the test group (12 out of 22 patients), at least 25% progress was registered with 3 test parameters. In the second 6-month period, both groups showed improvement in disease activity.
In a clinical trial carried out in a nursing home, 40 women with confirmed osteoporosis were divided into 4 groups and administered fish oil, EPO, fish oil plus EPO or olive oil (control) for 16 weeks. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the group receiving fish oil and the group receiving fish oil plus EPO decreased, which is indicative of an increase in bone mineral density. The amount of osteocalcin, which is an indicator of bone formation, increased in the group receiving fish oil and more significantly in the group receiving fish oil plus EPO. Although EPO did not have an effect on its own, it increased the effect of fish oil, probably due to a better balance in plasma fatty acids.
In a non-controlled clinical trial, 12 patients with hyperlipidemia received 3 g GLA per day for 4 months. After the treatment, plasma triglyceride decreased 48% (p<0.001), HDL increased 22% (p<0.01) and total cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly.
Twice a day, 1-2 soft capsules each time; or as prescribed by your physician.
1000 mg soft capsules in plastic container in cardboard box
Patient information leaflet inside
Evening Primrose Oil (Oenothera biennis L.)
Contraindications and Cautions
No reported significant adverse effect.
No reported significant drug interaction.
Administration during Pregnancy and Lactation
Like all other medications, it is recommended to take with care during the first trimester of pregnancy. Administration is safe during lactation, as breast milk contains linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.
Based on presence of 70-140 mg gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) per soft capsule.