Research and development, according to the OECD Institute, Which consists of 30 developed countries in the world,refers to the productive activities that arises from a systematic foundationwith the aim of increasing human knowledge and social culture and using of this knowledge is createdin new applications.Today expansion and designing new products more than ever is considered as the main and final factor of companies.R&D units in factoriesare the basic core of research activities in the industrial sector .these units mainlyfollow activities such as improving product quality, new product design, process optimization, transfer and absorption of technology, acquisition of technical knowledge for production, andetc in the policy framework for owners of industrial. in conditions that the organization strategy focused on developing new products, R&D unittends to the Projects in the field of product development.If the organization’s strategy is maintaining existing products and producing higher quality and more economicalproducts, R&D unittendsto the projects focused on the production process.R&D unitscan also be engaged tothe basic and applied researchor development activities.
The most important role in R&D unit in each production enterprise isproducing technologywithin the plants.It means that the existing technology in unit is considered as a primary context and by doing research and development activities and in a mutual process of communication with other production factors, produce a superior product than before,and eventually prodution superior product leads to creating superior technology and higher productivity of production factors. Nowadays (R & D) has direct impact on innovation, productivity, quality, living standards, market share and other factors that are effective in increasing the competitive potential of organizations.
With the emergence of globalization the methods of acquiring technology have also changedand new methodshave been createdthat provide possibilityof achieving in different levelsof researchto thecountries and organizations.
According to statistics provided by the Europe Union, the amount of investment in R & Dunit of companies and industrial enterpriseshas been higher 10 percent than before. All Big companies in this field belong to the U.S. and a few percent belongto the Europe. For example, Fizer Pharmaceutical Company 8/5 billion euros, Ford 5/5 billion euros and Microsoft 4/5 billion euros and European companies, DaimlerChrysler and Siemens respectively 2/5 and 5 billion euros have invested in their research and development.
According to the statistics,the highest investment share has related to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and then in the chemical industry, aerospace, military, automotive.
In the list of announcements of 50 top companies in R & Dunit, there are 20 American Companies, 18 European companies, 9 Japanese companies, and 3 other companies and by looking at these statistics, we will understandwhy the U.S., Europe and Japan are always considered the best innovators and producers of knowledge.
Secretary of Association of Research and Development Centers inMinistry of Industries and Mines has announcedthat less than 2% of the centers,companies and industrial plants Inthe country,have Research and Development (R & D) unit. Also big companies and industrial enterprises In the the world areallocatingover one third (30%) of their income to the research and study for development. But in iranthis number is less than one percentin most industries. These issues based on the visions of 20 years are the main obstacles in the way of development of iran. Due to the importance and status of R&D unit,the late managing director of Barij Essence pharmaceutical company «late Mr. Seyyed Hossein Hejazi»from the very beginning of his activityin order toproduce herbal medicinesand using native medicinal plants,knew the secret of success of this companyin an investment for acquiring new knowledge and established a dynamic and scientific research and development unit.
The core of this unit,by employing researchers and experts in various fieldsand receiving advisory servicesfrom inside and outside tutors is formed. Today, nearly 20 years of research and development activities in the Barij essence pharmaceutical company passes.Researchers in this centerhave all the necessary facilities for scientific and practical researchand related groups of Productionand always thinkof improving the quality of products. This unit currently has about 30 full-time members with MS and Ph.D. degrees that are working In the Department of Agriculture, Phytochemistry, formulation, clinical research, traditional medicine, veterinary medicine, microbiology, biotechnology and scientific — research publications. It is necessary to explain that each of the above groups directly associate with the university professors in the country.